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Heart failure with recovered ejection fraction: Current understanding and future prospects

Published:September 06, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjms.2022.07.018

      Abstract

      Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a prevalent kind of heart failure in which a significant amount of the ejection fraction can be repaired, and left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction can be reversed or even restored completely. However, a considerable number of patients still present clinical signs and biochemical features of incomplete recovery from the pathophysiology of heart failure and are at risk for adverse outcomes such as re-deterioration of systolic function and recurrence of HFrEF. Furthermore, it is revealed from a microscopic perspective that even if partial or complete reverse remodeling occurs, the morphological changes of cardiomyocytes, extracellular matrix deposition, and abnormal transcription and expression of pathological genes still exist. Patients with “recovered ejection fraction” have milder clinical symptoms and better outcomes than those with continued reduction of ejection fraction. Based on the unique characteristics of this subgroup and the existence of many unknowns, the academic community defines it as a new category-heart failure with recovered ejection fraction (HFrecEF). Because there is a shortage of natural history data for this population as well as high-quality clinical and basic research data, it is difficult to accurately evaluate clinical risk and manage this population. This review will present the current understanding of HFrecEF from the limited literature.

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