Cigarette smoking disturbs plasma lipid level and lipoprotein metabolism; however, the effects of smoking on the functional state of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are still not clear. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant and antichemotactic properties of HDL and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in healthy subjects after cigarette smoking.
Materials and Methods
Healthy male subjects, including nonsmokers (n = 16) and chronic smokers (n = 8), were enrolled. After smoking 8 cigarettes within 2 hours, plasma HDL was isolated and tested. Copper-induced low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was used to determine the antioxidant ability of HDL. The concentration of serum amyloid A was measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Chemotaxis was detected by transwell assay. HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was measured using fluorescent cholesterol analog.
LDL baseline oxidation state was higher in chronic smokers than that in nonsmokers. Meanwhile, HDL-induced cholesterol efflux in macrophages in chronic smokers was significantly enhanced compared with that in nonsmokers. After acute smoking, both the antioxidant and antichemotactic ability of HDL declined in nonsmokers. However, in healthy chronic smokers, the effect of HDL on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was compensatorily enhanced. Nevertheless, their bodies were still in a higher oxidation state. Also, acute smoking did not affect HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux significantly in both nonsmokers and chronic smokers.
Our data suggest that acute smoking attenuates the antioxidant and antichemotactic abilities of HDL in nonsmokers. Chronic smokers are in a higher oxidative state, although the antioxidant function of their HDL is compensatorily enhanced.
Key Indexing Terms
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Published online: July 19, 2018
Accepted: July 12, 2018
Received: November 30, 2017
Funding: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
The authors have no financial or other conflicts of interest to disclose.
© 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.