Clinical Investigation| Volume 346, ISSUE 5, P366-370, November 2013

Pseudomembranous Aspergillus Tracheobronchitis: A Potential for High Mortality in Low-Risk Patients


      Pseudomembranous Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (PMATB) is a relatively uncommon form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. PMATB is characterized by necrosis and sloughing of the respiratory epithelium resulting from the invasion of the tracheobronchial mucosa by Aspergillus species. The prognosis for patients with PMATB and underlying immune compromise is poor, but existing data suggest that the outcome of PMATB occurring in patients without overt immune compromise is favorable. To investigate the clinical features and prognosis for immunocompetent patients with PMATB in the study center, 10 patients with histologically and microbiologically confirmed PMATB lacking overt immune compromise over a 9-year period were retrospectively identified. Although all patients ultimately received systemic antifungal therapy, 4 patients required mechanical ventilation and 3 patients died. This report indicates that PMATB occurring in immunocompetent patients may exhibit an aggressive course, with rapid progression of lung parenchymal involvement and a fatal outcome.

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